PROCEEDINGS OF THE IV EUROPEAN COAL CONFERENCE
September 26–28, 2000, Ustroń, Poland
Scientific editors: Janusz JURECZKA, Maciej PODEMSKI
LOW-RANK COALS IN POLAND: PROSPECTION - MINING - PROGRESS
Jacek R. KASIŃSKI1, Marcin PIWOCKI 1
1Polish Geological Institute, Rakowiecka 4, 00-975 Warszawa
Abstract. Low-rank coal resources occur in Poland commonly within Tertiary deposits. Miocene coal-bearing deposits are most substantial; resources related to them are located in the eight lignite-bearing regions with total quantity above 40 bill. Mg. Origin of major lignite deposits are tectonic and subrosional. Coal of the 4 economic seams belongs to the hypolignite group and is of rather good quality.
Lignite in Poland is exploited from more than two hundred years. Recently, four large mines operate in central Poland (Adamów, Bełchatów and Konin) and south-eastern Poland (Turów). They produce about 60 mil. Mg of lignite per year. Almost whole coal is used as energy resource for five mouth-mine power plants, producing ca. 52 mil. MWh annually, and covering ca. 40% of Poland recent requirements. This energy is the cheapest one in Poland. Small amounts of lignite cover local requirements, and are used for production of valuable fertilisers. Also by-products: ceramic and kaolin clays, bentonite, quartz sand and aggregate, and bog-lime are selectively exploited. The Legnica region is regarded as the most probable new operating mining area in the future.
Complex technologies applied recently allow to substantially decrease environmental impact of mining, and the reclaimed areas are returned to agriculture and forestry. Final excavations are used as waste storage areas, and part of them is transformed into scenic lakes. Proper environmental protection and reclamation procedures are extremely important, because future of lignite mining development depends on its social acceptance.
Key words: lignite resources, coal quality, power production, coal mining, by-products, perspectives, Tertiary, Poland.
COAL MINE GAS FROM ABANDONED MINES
Clemens BACKHAUS1, Alina MROZ1, Bernd WILLENBRINK1
1 Fraunhofer UMSICHT, Osterfelder Strasse 3, D-46047 Oberhausen, Germany
Abstract. Coal mine gas usually consists of methane, nitrogen and carbon dioxide. Its appearance is a constant and well-documented concomitant of coal-mining. In the Ruhr Basin, Germany, after the shut-down of the mines, up to 1,000 cubic metres per hour of coal mine gas continue to escape from the pits and get into the atmosphere through special degassing systems. A not insignificant part of coal mine gas migrates in addition diffuse at the surface. Thus, a natural energy carrier is given up for lost. To make matters worse, the methane component of the coal mine gas could form an explosive mixture with air and it is ecologically harmful since it significantly contributes to the greenhouse effect: It is estimated that methane is approximately 21 times more harmful then carbon dioxide. Since 1994, engineers of the Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety, and Energy Technology in Oberhausen, Germany, have been working on new concepts regarding:
• the deliberate migrations of coal mine gas also effectively minimises potential dangers resulting from its uncontrolled emission, accumulation and forming explosive mixtures with air;
• the energetic utilisation of coal mine gas from abandoned mines in CHP units (Combined Heat and Power Generation).
Since 1998 UMSICHT operates several sucking-stations the danger defence and for potential inquiry of coal mine gas from abandoned mines. Therefore coal gas is sucked off of boreholes in the surface area (depth less then 50 m) and boreholes into old workings of the abandoned mines. A result of the different sucking tests is the minimisation of the diffuse gas migrations. By the direct sucking of the old pit a substantially bigger area could be hold gas free than by sucking off surface boreholes. The sucking off of abandoned coal mines has resulted an increase of the CH4-concentration from 40% to more than 70% over the testing time independent of the atmospheric conditions. During the time of sucking (more than 3 month) an influence to the pressure in the abandoned mine could not verified. Water ring pumps and roots-compressors in different kinds of operating are tested in the sucking-stations.
Coal mine gas is estimated to be available for a long time. An economic utilisation seems to be possible within the next decades. The gas deposit within the coal mines of North-Rhine Westphalia is enormous: It is considered to amount to approximately 120 million tons of methane per year, most of it energetically utilisable. The utilization of coal mine gas is one way to reach the aims of the Kyoto-Conference. Therefore the energy generation with coal mine gas is supported in Germany by a guaranteed price for the produced electrical energy since 2000. Because of the decreasing coal-prices in many countries a lot of mines were abandoned in the last years. Dezentralizied CHP-concepts created by UMSICHT are one way for an effective and quick solution of the problems of these mines.
Key words: coal gas mine, sucking stations, utilization, Germany.
THE RESERVE BASE OF HARD COAL IN POLAND: A REVIEW OF CHANGES IN THE PROCESS OF RESTRUCTURING OF THE COAL MINING SECTOR
Zbigniew BUŁA1, Janusz JURECZKA1, Włodzimierz KRIEGER1, Jan KWARCIŃSKI1
1 Polish Geological Institute, Upper Silesian Branch, Królowej Jadwigi 1, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
Abstract. On the turn of the 1980s and 1990s several unfavourable events affected the Polish hard coal mining. Critical for the mining sector were breakdown of the country's request for energy and drop of coal prices on the world market. In the period of 1989–1998, Poland's economic reserves (balance sheet resources) of hard coal decreased by 17%, and the industrial reserves dropped by 41%. Simultaneously, there was and there is still in progress a programme of technical and economic restructuring of the hard coal mining. According to the restructuring programme of coal mining, the total yearly output of Polish hard coalmines will drop from 101 million t in 2003 to 80 million t in 2020. However, there should be taken into consideration that in consequence of 2003-2020 liquidation of consecutive coalmines, ceasing of mining of the coal balance sheet reserves contained in seams below 1.50 m thick as well as other factors may limit the recoverable reserves of coal. In this context, it is highly possible that in the period 2010-2020 the availability of coal resources will be one of the critical problems of hard coal mining in Poland.
Key words: hard coal, reserves, restructuring, mines, Poland.
RELATION BETWEEN THE PETROGRAPHIC AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF WEAKLY REDUCED AND REDUCED COALS OF DONETS BASIN
Ludmila BUTUZOVA1, Stefan MARINOV2, Galina MATSENKO1, Sergej SKIRTOCHENKO1, Oksana TURCHANINA3, Lubov ISAJEVA1, Andrzej KRZTON4
1 L.M. Litvinenko Institute of Physical Organic and Coal Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine, 70 R. Luxemburg str., 340114 Donetsk, Ukraine
2 Institute of Organic Chemistry, Acad. G. Bonchev str. bl. 9, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1113, Bulgaria
3 Donetsk State Technical University, 48 Artema str., Donetsk 83000, Ukraine
4 Institute of Coal Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 5 Sowińskiego, 44-102 Gliwice, Poland
Abstract. Low-rank coals of the same rank level but of different genetic types and different tendency to self-ignition have been studied by means of coal chemistry. It has been shown that oxygen- and sulphur-containing functional groups, especially bridge-bonds, are responsible for the structure and properties of pyrolysis products.
Key words: coal, vitrinite, petrography, Donets Basin.
SELECTED PARAMETERS OF COAL QUALITY IN FAULT ZONES OF THE UPPER SILESIAN COAL BASIN (POLAND)
Stanisław R. ĆMIEL
University of Silesia, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Department of Applied Geology, Będzińska 60 St., 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
Abstract.The paper presents the changes of coal seams quality near fault zones. Three types of relations have been found. The first one shows an increase of coal quality at the 0.2 m distance from fault surface, as a result of increase of coalification degree. It is assumed that, this type was caused by heat of friction which was rising during faulting. It is revealed as an increase of such parameters as: caking properties, vitrinite reflectance, calorific value and carbon content, as well as the decrease of oxygen, ash, and moisture content.
The second type presents differed degree of coal quality decrease. This type was produced due to hypergenic processes. The author found four subtypes of oxidation-type changes of coal quality parameters in fault zones. The first one shows the highest level of hypergenic processes in a coal seam about 1 m off a fault plane. The second presents minor degree of oxidation processes in the coal seam at a smaller distance from the fault. The third one demonstrates minimum oxidation changes of coal quality at a distance of 0.2 m from the fault. The fourth subtype of the oxidation changes of coal quality has been observed only in tectonic breccia and not in the coal seams itself.
The third types demonstrates faults which do not show any impact on changes of coal quality parameters. To this type belong faults from SW part of USCB and faults with downthrown up to 20 m.
Key words: fault zones, coal quality parameters, Upper Silesian Coal Basin.
COAL CLASTS IN THE BOLSOVIAN (WESTPHALIAN C) SEQUENCE OF THE KLADNO-RAKOVNÍK CONTINENTAL BASIN (CZECH REPUBLIC): IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TIMING OF MATURATION
Vilém DANĚK1, Jiří PE?EK2, Pavla VALTEROVÁ3
1 Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Academy of Sciences, V Hole?ovičkách 41, 182 09 Praha 8, Czech Republic
3 Geofond, Kostelní 26, 170 00 Praha 7, Czech Republic
Abstract. Angular coal clasts confined to coarse-grained feldspathic sandstone deposited in the Tuchlovice Mine pit in the Kladno-Rakovník basin were studied. These fragments of various orientation consisting of banded, dull and bright coal of Bolsovian age (=Westphalian C) occur as an admixture being some tenths of a millimetre up to 40x30x20 mm large. The clasts are coalified into high volatile bituminous coal showing an average reflectance corresponding to vitrinite (Rr = 0.64%). They reveal no signs of progressing diagenetic changes after their redeposition. Some clasts exhibit cracks filled with clay minerals, which constitute common admixture in coal seams of this basin. Cracks do not extend into the adjacent sediment. Their origin is connected with coalification processes in original coal seam, which occurred prior to erosion. The investigation of miospores showed that the coal clasts come from the eroded Lubná coal seams of Bolsovian age. Since the Radnice Member is the oldest unit of the central and west Bohemian basins, the coalification of organic matter into high volatile bituminous coal must have occurred within this member, i.e., during some hundred thousand years at a depth of only a few tens, maximum first hundred metres. The achieved results argue for a high paleotemperature gradient, which must have existed during the Carboniferous in the Bohemian Massif.
Similar conditions are known, e.g., from South Wales basin in UK (Gayer et al., 1996) and from the Upper Silesian basin (Kozusníková et al., 1999).
Key words: coal clasts, time span of coalification, Bolsovian.
COAL HERITAGE FROM SOUTHERN BELGIUM: A PRESERVATION AND COMPUTERIZED MANAGEMENT OF COAL CONCESSIONS DATA
Xavier DEVLEESCHOUWER1, Barbara DECUPERE1, Xavier DELFORGE2, Marc ROCHE2, Luc HANCE2
1 Catholic University o Louvain, Geology, Louis Pasteur place 3, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
Abstract. From the past centuries until the seventies, underground coal mining activities have played an important role in the suburban development of western European coal basins. After closure of collieries, the impact of this activity on a fast growing urban environment is still obvious and cannot be underestimated. Changes in hydrological regime, water and soil pollution, sudden collapse or ground instability are risk factors not to be minimized. Old mining and related industrial sites have now to be revalidated and underground infrastructures and city planners and local authorities cannot ignore mineshafts. This is only possible if the huge amount of available mining data is preserved and their information computerized. These mining data represent an essential component of urban geology that must be integrated in an easy access geographic information system. The old coal districts in southern Belgium serves as a case study for developing an appropriate methodology.
Key words: coal mines, mining data, urban environment, information system, Belgium.
BACTERIAL DESULPHURISATION OF COAL
Peter FEČKO1, Pavla OVČAŘÍ1, Adriana FARKA?OVÁ1
1 V?B-Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic
Abstract. The aim of this paper was the evaluation of usefulness of bacterial leaching applied to a coal sample from the locality Nastup Tusimice. The results of this work proved that using clean cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was in this case very proper if we evaluated desulphurisation from the pyrite sulphur point of view. After one month of leaching, the pyrite sulphur was almost gone from the sample still containing a lot of organic sulphur amount of which decreased only slightly. The desulphurisation of pyritic sulphur reached about 71% while the total desulphurisation of coal – 42%.
Key words: brown coal, bacteria, desulphurisation, Nastup Tumisice Basin.
ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF COALBED METHANE EXPLOITATION; AN EXAMPLE FROM POLAND
Ireneusz GRZYBEK1, Ryszard KUZAK2, Rafał ŁUKOMSKI3
1 State Mining Authority, Poniatowskiego 31, 40-956 Katowice, Poland
2 The Silesian University, Dept. of Earth Sciences, Będzińska 60, 41-205 Sosnowiec, Poland
3 Mines Demethanation Enterprise "ZOK" Ltd., Boczna 24, 44-335 Jastrzębie Zdrój, Poland
Abstract. The paper presents the methodology of economic evaluation of coalbed methane exploitation in coal mines. The methodology consists of seven phases, which analyse: gassy conditions of coal deposit, coal exploitation scope, ventilation conditions of underground workings, productivity of degasification system as well as economics of both coal exploitation and methane recovery. In the result of the analyses classification, of methane resources and their subdivision into economic reserves and potentially economic resources can be done on the ground of either economic findings or methane content figures. The analyses also show, that methane extraction is always economic, but it can be proved only, if profit resulted coal exploitation during degasification is taken into account.
Key words: coalbed methane, reserves estimation, recovery economics.
ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF BURSA-ORHANELI LIGNITE COALFIELD
Hulya INANER1, Eran NAKOMAN1
1Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Geology, 35100 Bornova Izmir, Turkey
Abstract. Bursa-Orhaneli lignite coalfield is located in the North-West of Turkey. This coalfield has three sectors: Burmu, Çivili, and Sagirlar, having similar stratigraphic sequences in the northwest of Bursa Province. The mined coal seam is Miocene of age, and its thickness varies between 1.10–14.50 m. The pre-Neogene rocks in the area are made up of Palaeozoic aged metamorphic schists and marbles, and Upper Cretaceous aged ophiolites. The Neogene formations of detrital rocks with basal conglomerates, coal bearing marl and tuffites are found at the base, and volcanic basalt tuffs and andesite lava flows, at the top. The post-Neogene sediments are Pleistocene aged gravels and Holocene alluvium.
The deposit has been worked as an open-pit mine in the Burmu and Sagirlar sectors and is going to be worked by underground mining methods in the near future. The chemical analysis have shown that the percentage of water is 22.66–27.30%, ash 24.57–44.39%, volatile matter 18.52–29.44%, fixed carbon 23.87–29.52%, and total sulphur 1.84–2.64% in the original coal, and its calorific value is 2010–3032 kcal/kg, whereas the air dried coal is composed of 5.51–10.41% water, 26.99–54.18% ash, 21.83–35.49% volatile matter, 28.10–36.03% fixed carbon, and 2.42–3.06% total sulphur, with calorific value of 2483–3938 kcal/kg. The proven and workable lignite reserves are 60,877,079 and 47,308,406 tonnes respectively. Stripping and production operations are made by a dragline, excavators and trucks. Mined coal is used both in domestic heating and the Orhaneli thermic power plant, which has a capacity of 1 x 210 MW.
Key words: lignite, reserves, coal quality, Bursa-Orhaneli coalfield, Turkey.
DEPOSITIONAL EVOLUTION OF THE SOMA COALFIELD, WESTERN TURKEY:A PRELIMINARY REPORT
Abstract. Miocene alluvial/fluvial-lacustrine deposits composed of three lignite successions (Lower, Middle, and Upper) are exposed in Soma coalfield located near the northern Aegean Sea coastline of the Western Anatolia. The total thickness of the coal successions is about 900 m, and they rest unconformably on the Mesozoic carbonate/siliciclastic basement rocks. Recognised lithofacies of coal successions have been arranged to fourteen facies assemblages and interpreted as environments.
Lower Coal succession was deposited in an alluvial fan to plain and perennial forest mire system resulting in a subbituminous lignitic coal, in average 20 m thick. Freshwater carbonate-dominated Middle Coal succession, having lignite beds ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 m, was formed in floodplain environment, including shallow freshwater carbonate lakes and/or ponds, and frequently drying poor forest mires of an anastomosed river system. Volcanism-induced Upper Coal succession was deposited in fluvial channel, floodplain, and probably in allochthonous peat mires of a braided river system that rapidly got buried and/or eroded by volcaniclastic apron deposits, and culminated by large carbonate-dominated perennial shallow lakes.
The Miocene coal successions were probably deposited in the fault-controlled karst-based palaeovalleys and lowlands of the intramountain palaeomorphology that were patterned by the Early Tertiary collision of the Eurasia and Anatolian plates. The coal successions was faulted by the extensionally tectonic regime and covered with Plio-Quaternary deposits.
Key words: facies, stratigraphy, Soma coalfield, Turkey.
A DATABASE SUPPORTED 3D-GEOMETRIC MODEL FOR COMPUTER BASED ASSESSMENT AND VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS OF HARD COAL DEPOSITS IN THE DONETS BASIN; RESULTS OF A JOINT UKRAINIAN-GERMAN PROJECT
D. JUCH1, A. THOMSEN2, O. SPIRINA3, I. KARLASHENKO3, T. PISKOVAYA3, R. RYABCEV3
1 Geologischer Dienst Nordrhein-Westfalen, Krefeld, Germany
2 Geologisches Institut Universitaet Bonn, Germany
3 STG "Cooperation" of Donetsk SRGE, Artyomovsk, Ukraine
Abstract. In an attempt to make use of scientific potential for geological evaluation like resource management, a join German-Ukrainian project was carried out during the last four years. The aim of this project was the introduction and application in the Donets Basin of a computer based coal resources assessment method originally developed for the assessment of the German hard coal deposits and was called KVB-model. The combination and adaptation of the old conception of the KVB-model with modern graphic allows for the combination of the 3D structure plans of the seams with different attributes like seam and coal property data (thickness, ash, sulphur, metamorphism, rank), state of exposure (mining zone, prospective), gas content of coal, etc. A further extension of the system may consist of the interpretation of the rocks in addition to the seams already represented in the stratigraphic profile. This would allow the application be used for stratified geological units of any kind.
Key words: coal deposits, database, computer 3D-modelling, Donets Basin.
DISCORDANCES OF THE TOP SURFACE OF CARBONIFEROUS DEPOSITS OF THE UPPER SILESIAN COAL BASIN
Abstract. Geological boundaries of the structural stages between Late Variscan Moravian-Silesian-Cracow orogene and Saalian Sławków Graben taphrogene, Early and Late Kimmerian epeirogene, Middle Alpine Silesian-Cracow Monocline, and Late Alpine Carpathian Foredeep are defined as discordances. These structural surfaces of different age, present in the top surface of Carboniferous deposits of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, were investigated in morphotectonic research. Discordances in the morphotectonical record separate older faulted and folded Carboniferous deposits from younger, nearly subhorizontal rocks of epi-Variscan cover. This polychronic and polygenetic geological heterochronous boundary of the top surface of Carboniferous deposit consists of the following coeval discordances: sub-Permian, sub-Triassic, sub-Jurassic, sub-Cretaceous, sub-Miocene and sub-Quaternary. Those buried erosional surfaces with ancient landforms were some formed by terrestrial, others by marine planation. The repeated erosion of Carboniferous deposits and sedimentation of covers as well as fault, monocline and fold-flexure deformations are reflected in differentiated configuration of discordances in the height range from about 400 m a.s.l. to 6000 m b.s.l.
Key words: morphotectonic of discordances, Carboniferous to Quaternary events.
FOLD-AND-THRUST SHORTENING IN THE WESTERN PART OF THE UPPER SILESIAN COAL BASIN
Dominik JURA1, Ryszard KUZAK1
Abstract. The western frame-margin of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin provides good case studies for structural evolution of the fold-and-thrust belt. This study is concerned with tectonic junctions taking place on the Late Variscan front of the Moravosilesian Fold Zone and coal basin. Clues of evolution of fold-and-thrust belt were reconstructed on the base of six cross-sections and using balancing procedure to calculate the shortening. These structural cross-sections illustrated the two principal positive and negative inversion processes of Upper Silesian Coal Basin. The fold shortening varies in range of 25 up to 30% and in low range of 4 up to 18%. The thrust shortening is contrary to fold shortening and changed range of about 10% up to 50%. In the central part of fold-and-thrust belt summarised shortening is 55%, which gradually decreases northward up to 35% and southward up to 30%.
Key words: coal-bearing deposits, inversion tectonics, shortening, restoration, Variscan belt.
THE INFLUENCE OF TECTONIC FACTOR ON METHANE BEARING CAPACITY IN CHOSEN AREAS OF THE UPPER SILESIAN COAL BASIN
University of Silesia, Department of Applied Geology, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Będzińska 60, Poland
Abstract. The paper presents general information on variability of coalbed methane bearing capacity in tectonic zones, faults, rock fissures etc. Methane occurrences were compared in two tectonic zones of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin - the zone of fault-block tectonics and the folded one. The influence of big size faults (i.e. Bzie-Czechowice fault) and neighbouring fissures on methane bearing capacity is strongly marked in the zone of fault-block tectonics. The most important tectonic factors influencing the methane occurrence in the folded zone are Chwałowice and Jejkowice depressions and also Orlová and Michalkovice overthrusts. The methane bearing zones are parallel to Chwałowice and Jejkowice depressions bottom axis. Presence of Carpathian nappes intensifies rock fissuring process, which could involve the methane migration and cause degasification of coal seams lying under these nappes.
Key words: coalbed methane, methane bearing capacity, tectonics, Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland.
PETROGRAPHICAL STUDY OF ANTHRACITES FROM EUROPEAN COAL BASINS
Barbara KWIECIŃSKA1, Sławomira PUSZ2, Stanisław DUBER2
1 University of Mining and Metallurgy, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
2 Institute of Coal Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sowińskiego 5, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
Abstract. The anthracites from several coal basins occurring in France, Germany, Ireland, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine and United Kingdom were studied in reflected plane-polarised light (Olympus microscope). Three maceral groups (vitrinite, inertinite, liptinite) and associated mineral matter were distinguished. All the anthracites are dominantly composed of vitrinite (75–95%), inertinite is minor (2.5–19%), and liptinite is very rare (up to 1.5%, with one exception – 4.4%). In vitrinite group, the following macerals: collotelinite, telinite, collodetrinite, vitrodetrinite, and pseudovitrinite were recognised. In inertinite group, the most abundant are fusinite and semifusinite.
Liptinite in general is dominated by sporinite. In some anthracites, liptinite was not accounted at all, perhaps, in such highly metamorphosed anthracites, sporinite underwent a rapid change in chemical and physical composition, and became optically indistinguishable from vitrinite. In a few samples, sporinite can be recognised from its vitrinite matrix by a distinct optical morphology.
Optical microscopical studies of all anthracites revealed significant heterogeneity of the samples, clearly visible under crossed nicols with the use of higher magnifications. This heterogeneity reflects the differences in coal facies, in primary maceral composition, inherited from peat or sub-bituminous stages but also in strain or pressure being distributed inhomogeneously during formation of anthracite. In all cases, heterogeneous microtexture (fine, coarse, granular, mosaic, and fibrous) was observed. Porous and lamellar particles coexist very often together. Coke-like structure, with numerous devolatilization vacuoles, was also recognised. Pyrolytic carbon occurring as veins, sub-parallel to bedding, can be easily noticed in some samples. Pyrolytic carbon types are presumed to originate from volatiles evolved during condensation reactions.
Reflectance values (Rmax) of anthracites vary from 2.3% up to 8.9%. These samples which exhibit Rmax higher than 6% were considered as meta-anthracites. It seems, that the latter are made of conglomerates of graphite-like complexes having preferential planar orientation and structurally less organised compounds with typical turbostratic arrangement of the aromatic units.
Key words: anthracites, heterogencity, microtexture, reflectance.
PETROLOGICAL STUDIES OF LOW TEMPERATURE OXIDATION OF LIGNITES
K. MARKOVA1, Y. STEFANOVA1, M. BONEVA2
1 Sofia University "St. Kl. Ohridski", 15 Tzar Osvoboditel Blvd., 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria
2 Institute of Organic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bontchev Street, Bl. 9, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
Abstract. The low temperature oxidation processes which has taken place in lignites and their lithotypes (xylain, humovitrain, semifusain, fusain and liptain) from the East Maritza basin have been studied. The changes occurring in the coals/lithotypes composition and structure during their oxidation have been followed by examining reflectance, microhardness, proximate, ultimate, functional, and increment analyses. The main kinetic parameters such as duration of the induction period, maximum and stationary rates and the apparent activation energies were evaluated. The complex investigation provides a detailed information for the behaviour of low rank coals and their lithotypes towards the action of atmospheric oxygen. Thus some suggestions concerning the mechanisms of their oxidation reactions can be made. The individual way of the genesis of each one of the lithotypes and the resulting physicochemical structure predetermine the basic mechanism of these reactions. However, it has been found that in spite of the similar genesis the lithotypes differ in the mechanism of their oxidation. For xylain the oxidation takes place mainly via aryl radicals yielding tertiary peroxide and carbonyl groups. The oxidation of humovitrain is characterised by the dominant participation of aroxyl radicals resulting in accumulation of primary hydroperoxide and phenol groups. The oxidation of semifusain leads mainly to the formation of molecular products. The oxidation of fusain is found to be essentially different from that of other lithotypes. It is characterised by the formation of carbonyl groups attached to biphenyl aromatic structures. The peculiar petrographic composition and structure of liptain account for the occurrence of oxidation processes accompanied by destruction reactions at relatively lower temperatures. It has been established that the intensity of the oxidation processes varies from one lithotype to an other. Xylain and humovitrain oxidise most intensively. The intensity drops off from the first towards the second member of the corresponding genetic series, i.e. from xylain to humovitrain and from semifusain to fusain.
Key words: lignites, lithotypes, oxidation, East Maritza Iztok basin.
GEOCHEMICAL INTERPRETATION AND COMPARISON OF BIOMARKER COMPOSITION OF BITUMENS OBTAINED FROM COALS AND SURROUNDING ROCKS
Silesian University, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Dept. of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Petrography, 60, Będzińska str., 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
Abstract. The bitumens obtained as the extraction products from a series of coals and surrounding rocks samples were fractionated onto aliphatic, aromatic and polar fractions. Aliphatic and aromatic fractions were then submitted to analysis using modern gas chromatography – mass spectrometry method. The distribution of n-alkanes was compared and parameters values characterising conditions of sedimentation and type of primary organic matter were calculated. In aliphatic fractions, a series of biomarkers was also identified as steranes, diasteranes, tricyclic diterpanes, hopanes and moretanes. The relatively high content of diasteranes was observed in the bitumens from shales bordering on coals. It confirms the literature data indicating possibility of catalytic influence of claystones on arrangement of steranes to diasteranes. The values of parameters calculated from the data characterising distribution of hopanes have indicated a possibility of generation of oils by some of analysed coals: flame as well as orthocoking coals.
The aromatic compounds were also identified, mainly phenanthrenes being an important stage of aromatisation process of fossil organic matter.
The comparison of characteristics of bitumens obtained from coals and surrounding rocks suggests a possibility of migration of various groups of organic compounds from coal layers to rocks bordering on them. The migration of organic mobile matter seems to be as well a result of a great difference of concentration between coal and surrounding rocks layers as of action of circulating waters or hydrothermal solutions. The temperature gradient and local intrusive bodies are of great significance for processes of oil migration. The examinations and conclusions presented in this work should be, however, taken as the introductory ones and have to be confirmed by analysis of a greater number of samples of various geological characteristics.
Key words: coal, coal shales, bitumens, biomarkers, gc-ms, thermal maturity.
ANALYSIS OF AROMATIC FRACTIONS OF LOW-TEMPERATURE COAL TARS WITH THE USE OF SYNCHRONOUS LUMINESCENCE TECHNIQUE
Aniela MATUSZEWSKA1, Maria CZAJA1
1Silesian University, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Dept. of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Petrography, 60, Będzińska str., 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
Abstract. The qualitative analysis by synchronous luminescence technique was performed on aromatic fractions of primary tars obtained from humic and sapropelic coals (from Upper Silesia Basin). The synchronous luminescence technique, called also the technique of spectral fractionation, consists in the record of a spectrum at the constant difference between the positions of emission and excitation monochromators (Δλ). This difference is calculated as a result of subtraction of effective emission and excitation wavelengths characterising compounds identified in investigated mixture. In relation with conventional luminescence technique, giving broad, low resolved bands in the conditions of ambient temperature, the synchronous luminescence technique enables to obtain well resolved and simplified spectra that facilitate the identification of individual components of the mixture. The application of this technique to analysis of aromatic fractions composition of primary tars from coals of various genesis and technological properties (sapropelic and humic coals) has shown a general similarity of composition with predomination of aromatic compounds containing 2–4 condensed rings.
In the sample derived from sapropelic coal, a markedly higher intensity of bands is observed, attributed to aromatics of lower condensation degree (2–3 condensed rings), in relation with the bands of aromatics with higher intensity (3–4 condensed rings). The reverse relation is observed for sample from humic coal. In both analysed samples, a series of the following individual compounds has been identified from groups of aromatics: naphthalenes, acenaphthenes, benzofluorenes, anthracenes, pyrenes, and benz(a)anthracenes. Smaller amounts of benz(a)pyrenes, benz(ghi)perylene, and 3, 4–9, 10-dibenzopyrene were also encountered.
The technique of synchronous luminescence made possible, therefore, the identification of individual components of complex mixture of aromatic compounds in coal derived products. This technique is thus of great value for the characteristics of aromatic compounds in thermolysis products of coal, in the cognitive aspect, as well as in monitoring of environment.
Key words: synchronous luminescence, coal primary tar, aromatics.
MORPHOLOGICAL FORMS OF CHARS IN SLAG AND FLY ASH FROM THE BĘDZIN POWER STATION, UPPER SILESIA, POLAND
University of Silesia, Department of Earth Sciences, Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
Abstract. Combustion of coal is still one of the main sources of energy and electricity in Poland. For cost reasons, and because of the need to protect the environment, it is important to use coal as efficiently as possible. One of the indicators of coal combustion efficiency is the amount of unburned organic matter in slag and fly ash. This organic matter occurs in different morphological forms. This paper provides an overview of the char morphological forms found in slag and fly ash from selected boilers installed in Będzin Power Station (Poland). The relative quantities of particular morphological forms are compared with the maceral composition of the feed coal. The aim is the better understanding of the influence that maceral composition has on combustion performance.
Keywords: coal, pulverised fuel combustion, fly ash, slag, chars.
EVALUATION OF THE BOGDANKA MINE, POLAND
Keith D. PHILPOTT
SRK Consulting (SRK), Hamilton House, Kestral Road, Mansfield, Nottinghamshire, NG18 5FT, United Kingdom
Abstract. During the early part of 1999 Steffen, Robertson and Kirsten (UK) Ltd (SRK) were commissioned by Price Waterhouse Coopers to carry out the technical due diligence study of the Bogdanka Coal Mine as part of their contract with the Treasury Ministry of Poland for pre-privatisation analysis. A visit was undertaken by four experienced consultants specialising in the fields of geology, mining, coal preparation and environment. The team also undertook a review of management, manning levels, performance and other broad issues affecting the operation of the mine. In this paper the author outlines the general geology of the mine, and attempts to show how an experienced consultant comes to terms with a meaningful assessment of a mine and coalfield of which he has little or no previous knowledge, particularly given the very short time available for the commission.
The relevance of such aspects as mineral rights and concessions, the exploration history, cover deposits, coal bearing strata, geological structure, coal quality and potential hazards to the assessment will be examined. The assessment of reserves and resources to standards acceptable to international banking organisations will be looked at in more detail. Finally some of the critical non-geological factors of the assessment will be outlined.
Key words: geological conditions, reserves and resources, Bogdanka Coal Mine.
MINEWATER REMEDIATION IN THE UNITED KINGDOM
Keith D. PHILPOTT
SRK Consulting (SRK), Hamilton House, Kestral Road, Mansfield, Nottinghamshire, NG18 5FT, United Kingdom
Abstract. The author will outline the history of minewater remediation in the UK with special reference to investigations and construction schemes undertaken by SRK in England, Scotland and Wales over the past seven years. The influence of mining and geology on the waters, the flow of minewater and its discharge location, and then the subsequent choice of remediation methodology, site and construction option will be examined at specific sites. At Polkemmet Colliery in Scotland rising minewater was prevented from discharging in an uncontrolled manner by installing pumps into an old mine shaft and constructing a semi-active treatment plant on site before discharging the water to a nearby stream. Edmondsley remediation scheme in County Durham involves the treatment of a ferruginous discharge from a drainage adit by the pumping of minewater through a woodland nature reserve up to a three cell wetland, and then by gravity return to a nearby stream. In Derbyshire, the Fender scheme has recently been constructed and involves treatment through reedbeds sited on former colliery and ironworks tips with the water first being pumped across an existing river from shafts sited in the yard of a factory unit. At Blaenavon construction has recently commenced. The scheme involves the capture and piping of two ferruginous minewater flows underground and then treatment through reedbeds. The water flows through Big Pit, a former mine reopened to the public as a tourist attraction.
Key words: minewaters, discharge, environmental, United Kingdom.
WORLD COALBED METHANE PROJECTS
Stanisław RYCHLICKI1, Kazimierz TWARDOWSKI1
1 University of Mining and Metallurgy, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland
Abstract. Worldwide coalbed methane resources, once considered as a new "unconventional" natural gas resources, are now being recognised as a potential source of methane in many countries with extensive coal basins. Coal deposits occur abundantly in many locations throughout the world. Unfortunately, for most of the countries (and especially European countries) the geological conditions are not as simple as in the American basins (complex structure of the basins, very low coal permeability) and unmodified use of the US coalbed methane technology could lead to disappointing results.
Good gas productivity in coalbed methane projects will probably only be achieved through the adaptation and development of existing technologies in the exploration, drilling and production fields. Using strictly classical oil and gas technologies does not seem to be capable of producing adequate results. Exploitation of CBM resources will be a challenge for the next century. Success depends on our ability to change our way of thinking and to find solutions for the real difficulties of CBM exploitation.
In the United States, the existing natural gas pipeline system has provided a ready means for distributing and marketing the extracted CBM. However, establishing natural gas markets outside of the USA will be more challenging. In locations such as eastern Australia, China or southern Africa there are no existing pipeline facilities for the distribution and sale of the gas. The construction of hundreds of miles of pipeline may be required to connect the CBM production sites to the Consumers' market.
In the paper is presented information about the most interesting CBM projects in the world.
Key words: coalbed methane reserves, coalbed methane projects, coalbed methane technology.
COALY ROCKS OF DNIEPROVSKY LIGNITE BASIN AS A RAW MATERIAL FOR POWER ENERGY AND CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES
V.I. SARANCHUK1, G.P. MATSENKO1, V.I. TAMKO1, I.I. SHWETS1
1 L.M. Litvinenko Institute of Physical, Organic, and Coal Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 70, R. Luxemburg str., Donetsk, Ukraine, 83114
Abstract. Dnieprovsky lignite basin, situated in central part of Ukraine over the area of about 400 km2, contains more than 150 deposits. About 55 deposits have industrial significance. Their reserves are 2.4 billion tons. Seams and lenses of coaly clays and sands overlay the coal series and occur between coal packets. The coaly clays are classified into this category because their ash content exceeds 40%. Our investigations show that coaly rocks are similar to lignite in composition and properties. They have ash content from 40% up to 60%, the same elementary composition of organic matter. As well as bitumen and humic acids yield. It has been established that coaly rocks can be used as energy and chemical raw material, the basis of good carbon sorbents with high adsorptional capacitance. The recommendation of coaly rocks for mining and processing is difficult because of lack of information in geological reports on their quantity, composition and properties, as they are considered as host rocks but not as mineral resources. If the usable coal limit was accepted at 50% of ash content, the coal reserves of some deposits would have increased 1.5–2 times.
Key words: lignite, power energy, chemical raw material, Dnieprovsky basin.
THE MSENO-ROUDNICE BASIN: PROBLEMS OF RECONSTRUCTION OF FOSSIL STREAM PATTERN (CENTRAL BOHEMIAN COAL BASINS, CZECH REPUBLIC)
Jiří SKOPEC1, Jiří PESEK1, Miroslav KOBR1
1 Faculty of Science, Charles University, Albertov 6, 128 43 Praha 2, Czech Republic
Abstract. The Mseno-Roudnice Coal Basin is an eastern part of the Central Bohemian Carboniferous Coal Basins. The total thickness of the Carboniferous sediments is ranging from several tens of metres in the south up to nearly 1 km in the basin centre. The basin was explored by nearly 55 deep boreholes with the aim to explore coal reserves. The seismic exploration in the basin has been carried out, too. Fossil stream pattern was reconstructed, of which rivers eroded the upper part of the Slaný Formation sediments during the intra-Stephanian hiatus between the Slaný and Líně Formation (Stephanian B/C). The project could have been realized due to some drilling close to seismic profiles, and also at least due to locally favourable seismological conditions. The results allowed to decipher the anomalous depositional structure of the Slaný and Líně formations that was difficult to be defined earlier. The results showed that some tectonic movements occurred towards the end of the Stephanian B which resulted in giving rise of erosional activity of ancient streams.
Key words: seismic profiles, ancient river valleys, the M?eno-Roudnice Basin.
COMPOSITION AND MORPHOLOGY OF ORGANIC AND MINERAL MATTER IN FLY ASH DERIVED FROM BITUMINOUS COAL COMBUSTED IN THE BĘDZIN POWER STATION (POLAND)
Danuta SMOŁKA-DANIELOWSKA1, Magdalena MISZ 1
1 University of Silesia, Department of Earth Sciences, Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
Abstract. Fly ash particles formed during coal combustion are composed entirely of organic or/and mineral matter. The proportions of the two components depends on combustion conditions and the presence of minerals in feed coal particles. The aims of this paper are the classification of char morphologies, the quantification of the inert- and semiinert components, and the characterisation of the morphologies and compositions of mineral particles in fly ash from Będzin Power Station, Poland. Various char morphologies are presented and their distribution in individual pulverised fuel boilers is discussed as are the morphologies of mineral particles and the distribution of major and minor elements in different size fractions of fly ash.
Key words: coal, pulverised fuel combustion, fly ash, chars, mineral matter.
MOLECULAR INDICATORS FOR COAL-FORMING PALAEOPLANT COMMUNITY. "KATRISHTE" COAL DEPOSIT
Maya STEFANOVA1, Kalinka MARKOVA2, Stefan MARINOV1
1 Institute of Organic Chemistry, Bulg. Acad. Sciences, Sofia 1113
2 University "St. Kl. Ohridski" Sofia 1000, Bulgaria
Abstract. Coal deposit "Katrishte" located in south-western Bulgaria, Ro = 0.34%, was subjected to geochemical study. By chromatographic and spectral methods, a variety of coal biomarkers in bitumen extract has been revealed. n-Alkane distribution pattern indicated at least two possible sources, lacustrine and terrestrial ones. The aliphatic fraction was strongly dominated by 16α(H)-kaurane and 16α(H)-phyllocladane, a proof for the presence of Pinales in coal-forming palaeoplant community. The kaurane prevalence over phyllocladane could indicate the herbaceous flowering plant contribution. The combination of sesquiterpenoids/diterpenoids pointed to Pinaceae and Araucariceae.
As a biomarker assemblage peculiarity, the lack of isoprenoids, tricyclic diterpenoids, and pentacyclic triterpenoids could be indicated.
Our data gave us ground to assume existence of bush moor with the presence of herbaceous flowering plants, and subordinate contributions of conifers and sedge-reeds to coal forming plant taxa of "Katrishte" coal.
Key words: coal, organic geochemistry, biomarker assemblage.
IN-SITU OBSERVATIONS OF DEVOLATILISATION OF COAL
Vladimir STREZOV1, John A. LUCAS1, Steve R. OSBORN2, Les STREZOV2
2 Centre for Metallurgy and Resource Processing, BHP Research & Technology Development, Newcastle Laboratories, PO Box 188, Wallsend, NSW 2287, Australia
Abstract. Coal devolatilisation phenomena were observed in-situ during heating. A single particle of coal of approximately 1 mm diameter was placed on a stainless steel strip heated by an alternative current source. The behaviour of the coal particle was recorded at 100 times magnification through an arrangement of a long focal distance microscope attached to a CCD camera. The two different coal types examined (thermal and coking coal) exhibited significant differences during heating. At about 460oC, during the plastic stage, the coking coal showed rapid swelling and formation of bubbles within the liquid. Unlike the coking coal, the thermal coal showed very little swelling, although devolatilisation (predominantly tars for both coals) was taking place. The volatiles were diffusing to the surface of the particle through the pores in the char, without any significant swelling. At temperatures above 600oC, significant shrinking was observed with the coking coal, while in both samples, evolution of hydrogen was monitored. These observations were compared to the measured specific heats for these coals. The specific heats showed significant differences between the samples associated with a very complex behaviour following the onset of softening. While the coking coal exhibited predominantly exothermic reactions coinciding with the observed swelling phenomena, the thermal coal showed a sequence of endothermic and exothermic reactions. The changes in the specific heats also correlated well with the observed evolution of hydrogen (and shrinking for the coking coal) at higher temperatures.
Key words: coal, swelling, devolatilisation, tars, specific heat, reactions.
CARBONIFEROUS AQUIFERS OF THE MAIN SYNCLINE IN THE UPPER SILESIAN COAL BASIN, POLAND
Upper Silesian Branch of Polish Geological Institute, Królowej Jadwigi 1, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
Abstract. The paper presents the results of ten years hydrogeological studies carried out on 190 exploration boreholes drilled from 1953 to 1990 year. The study area covers the Main Syncline situated in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in the Southern Poland. Hydrogeological conditions of the Carboniferous sequence are controlled by geological and anthropogenic factors.
Key words: Carboniferous aquifers, Upper Silesian Coal Basin.
THREE DIMENSIONAL COAL CHARACTERISATION (MACERAL, MINERAL AND CLEATS) BY MEANS OF X-RAY MICROFOCUS COMPUTER TOMOGRAPHY (µCT)
M. Van GEET1, P. DAVID2, R. SWENNEN1
1 Fysico-chemische Geologie, K.U.Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200C, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium
2 NITG-TNO, Budapestlaan 4, P.O. Box 80015, NL-3508 Utrecht, The Netherlands
Abstract. One of the aims in coal quality studies, coal bed methane extraction studies, and research on environmental impact of coal, is a full 3D-quantitative characterisation of coal maceral content and distribution, mineral content and cleat system distribution. X-ray microfocus computer tomography, which is a non-destructive technique enabling virtual slicing opaque objects, is an excellent tool.
Stacking several slices enables 3D visualisation of the object. The final images show differences in linear attenuation coefficient of X-rays. This linear attenuation coefficient depends on the density and the atomic number of the object. Consequently, components that differ in these parameters can be distinguished. A calibrated dual energy technique allows to extract quantitative information on density and atomic number of the constituents and thus enable maceral and mineral characterisation.
The optimal resolution of this technique is 10 μm in three dimensions, which is far better than for classical medical CT (500 × 500 × 1000 μm) used in earlier studies. For this purpose, a correlation between microfocus computer tomography data with data of colour image analysis of reflected light microscopy and with back-scattered electron microscopy data allows maceral and mineral characterisation in three dimensions. Moreover, a calibration with an artificial object with several fracture apertures enables the quantification of cleat sizes.
Key words: coal, three dimensions, maceral, mineral content, cleat system, computer tomography.
INFLUENCE OF GEOLOGIC AND ECONOMIC PARAMETERS ON THE (E)CBM-DEVELOPMENT IN THE CAMPINE BASIN (BELGIUM)
P. Van TONGEREN1, R. DREESEN1, B. LAENEN1, M. DUSAR2
1 Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO). Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol, Belgium
2 Belgian Geological Survey. Jennerstraat 13, B-1040 Brussels, Belgium
Abstract. The Belgian Campine Basin is part of a large paralic north-western coal basin of Carboniferous age, which also extends northwards and eastwards into the Netherlands and Germany. The Westphalian coal-bearing deposits are disconformably covered by Late Palaeozoic or Mesozoic strata and generally show a moderate dip to the north or north-east. An important transpressional fault zone of Palaeozoic age divides the basin into western and eastern sub-basins. During the Carboniferous, syntectonic differences in palaeo-subsidence caused remarkable differences in the burial history and sedimentological styles of these sub-basins and consequently, in their peat and final coal formation, its setting and CBM-potential.
Large coal reserves still remain in the Campine basin at relatively shallow depths (above 1500 m). Based on the distribution of these coal reserves and their actual rank, an overall CBM-content for the complete basin, as well as for specific anomalous zones within the basin, has been calculated by using an empirically determined (mining) rank/ gas relationship. In this manner, six (6) areas have been established in which the gas concentration is significantly (5 times) above a set general threshold value. Together they represent a significant, minimal producible (E)nhanced CBM "target-volume" of about 53 x 109 m3 of methane.
The various target areas demand different approaches in any (E)CBM development. In the southern parts of both sub-basins, the remaining changes in porosity/permeability and stress conditions of the rocks, caused by the former mining activities, have to be included into the (E)CBM-development schemes. More towards the north and north-east, any use of preserved coal mining influences is simply not possible. Here, both the sedimentological and structural setting of coals will determine the predominant geologic (E)CBM-development factors.
Possibilities for ECBM-production by CO2, N2 or even "raw" flue gases are largely present within or very close to the most prolific CBM-areas. Gas-pipelines and other infrastructure needed for (E)CBM-development are present in the basin, too. The basin is situated within a low to moderately populated part of the country, which is actually rapidly economically expanding. This certifies a steadily increasing gas-consumer market in the next decades.
Key words: coal basins, coalbed methane, Carboniferous.